The microelectronic basis and digital programmability of bioelectronic systems means that there is huge potential for flexibility in both research and future medical device design. Emerging technology offers the possibility of building restorative neural systems, which are adaptable and programmable for various diseases, as well as specifically for individuals. The codes used to programme the systems can be modified as scientific understanding of the brain evolves, and be used to rapidly respond to physiological fluctuations within the body. However, to realize this potential, we first need a better understanding of how the nervous system functions and responds to bioelectronic interventions. Our research is developing clinical-grade systems for first-in-human studies to explore the physiological processes of disease, and apply this understand to novel treatments.